Overzicht van relevante studies

donderdag, 16 oktober 2008 - Categorie: Onderzoeken

Vaak wordt aan Stopumts de vraag gesteld waar wij onze standpunten op baseren. Dat is op dit moment voornamelijk het Bio-Initiative rapport www.bioinitiative.org/report/docs/section_1.pdf . dat onverholen oproept tot een onmiddellijke verlaging van de stralingsnormen tot 0,6 V/m en niet uitsluit dat deze norm in de toekomst nogmaals met een factor 100 verlaagd zal moeten worden.
Daarnaast publiceren wij hieronder met dank aan onze collega's van Mast Sanity een lijst van relevante studies, met name voor medewerkers van het Antennebureau en de GGD om hun kennis bij te spijkeren over de gezondheidsaspecten van HF EM velden met tevens een verzoek aan het Platform Elektromagnetische Velden om deze studies voor het grote publiek te duiden doch slechts nadat het Cofam II onderzoek aan een grondige analyse onderworpen geweest is. Werk aan de winkel!

P Friedman J et al, (August 2007) Mechanism of a short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency, Biochem J. 2007 Aug 1;405(3):559-68

''These ROS then directly stimulate matrix metalloproteinases and allow them to cleave and release heparin binding-EGF. This secreted factor, activates EGF receptor, which in turn further activates the ERK cascade. Thus, this study demonstrates for the first time a detailed molecular mechanism by which electromagnetic irradiation by mobile phones induces the activation of the ERK cascade and thereby induces transcription and other cellular processes.''

P Yao K et al, (May 2008) Effect of superposed electromagnetic noise on DNA damage of lens epithelial cells induced by microwave radiation, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 May;49(5):2009-15

''Microwave radiation induced hLEC DNA damage after G(0)/G(1) arrest does not lead to cell apoptosis. The increased ROS observed may be associated with DNA damage. Superposed electromagnetic noise blocks microwave radiation-induced DNA damage, ROS formation, and cell cycle arrest''

P Yao K et al, (May 2008) Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells, Mol Vis. 2008 May 19;14:964-9

''DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage''

P Lonn S et al, (November 2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma, Epidemiology. 2004 Nov;15(6):653-9

''Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration''

P Hardell L et al, (September 2007) Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours - increased risk associated with use for > 10 years, Occup Environ Med. 2007 Sep;64(9):626-32

''No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Five studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased OR especially for ipsilateral exposure. Highest OR = 5.4, 95 % CI = 3.0-9.6 was calculated for high-grade glioma and ipsilateral exposure in one study. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > 10 years give a consistent pattern of an increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma, most pronounced for high-grade glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.''

- Hours M et al, (October 2007) Cell Phones and Risk of brain and acoustic nerve tumours: the French INTERPHONE case-control study, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2007 Oct;55(5):321-32

''No significant increased risk for glioma, meningioma or neuroma was observed among cell phone users participating in Interphone. The statistical power of the study is limited, however. Our results, suggesting the possibility of an increased risk among the heaviest users, therefore need to be verified in the international INTERPHONE analyses.''

P Erogul O et al, (October 2006) Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study, Arch Med Res View Comments and Links View on Pubmed

''These data suggest that EMR emitted by cellular phone influences human sperm motility. In addition to these acute adverse effects of EMR on sperm motility, long-term EMR exposure may lead to behavioral or structural changes of the male germ cell. These effects may be observed later in life, and they are to be investigated more seriously.''

P Agarwal A et al, (January 2008) Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic, Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8

''Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality.''

P Baste V et al, (April 2008) Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields; male infertility and sex ratio of offspring, Eur J Epidemiol. 2008 Apr 16

''In all age groups there were significant linear trends with higher prevalence of involuntary childlessness with higher self-reported exposure to radiofrequency fields. However, the degree of exposure to radiofrequency radiation and the number of children were not associated. For self-reported exposure both to high-frequency aerials and communication equipment there were significant linear trends with lower ratio of boys to girls at birth when the father reported a higher degree of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure.''

P Ferreira A et al, (December 2006) Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring, Life Sci 2006 Dec 3;80(1):43-50

''Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.''

P Panagopoulos D et al, (January 2007) Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation, Mutat Res. 2007 Jan 10;626(1-2):69-78

''Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells constituting an egg chamber (follicle cells, nurse cells and the oocyte) and in all stages of the early and mid-oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10, during which programmed cell death does not physiologically occur. Germarium and stages 7-8 were found to be the most sensitive developmental stages also in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8.''

P Yan JG et al, (2008) Upregulation of specific mRNA levels in rat brain after cell phone exposure, Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(2):147-54

''These results indicate that relative chronic exposure to cell phone microwave radiation may result in cumulative injuries that could eventually lead to clinically significant neurological damage''

P Fews AP et al, (December 1999) Increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines, Int J Radiat Biol. 1999 Dec;75(12):1505-21

''The observations demonstrate a mode of increased exposure to pollutant aerosols under high voltage power lines by increased deposition on the body. The total (indoor + outdoor) 218Po and 214Po dose to the basal layer of facial skin is estimated to be increased by between 1.2 and 2.0 for 10% of time spent outdoors under high voltage power lines''

P Fews AP et al, (December 1999) Corona ions from powerlines and increased exposure to pollutant aerosols, Int J Radiat Biol. 1999 Dec;75(12):1523-31

''These results can be analysed in terms of the charge density present. This analysis suggests that typically 2000 excess negative charges per cm3 are required to match the measured DC fields. Such space charge will result in unipolar aerosol charging in excess of the normal bipolar steady state charge distribution of pollutant aerosols. This may lead to increased lung deposition on inhalation''

P Henshaw DL et al, (April 2008) Can disturbances in the atmospheric electric field created by powerline corona ions disrupt melatonin production in the pineal gland?, J Pineal Res. 2008 Apr 1.

''A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis.''

P Cohen B et al, (May 1998) Deposition of charged particles on lung airways, Health Phys 74(5):554-60

''For singly charged 20-nm particles deposition (+/- standard error) in the casts was 3.4 +/- 0.3 times that for charge neutralized aerosols and 5.3 +/- 0.3 times the amount deposited for zero-charged particles. Corresponding ratios for the 125-nm particles were 2.3 +/- 0.3 and 6.2 +/- 0.7. Since most ambient particles are charged this effect must be considered when models are used to predict dose from inhaled ultrafine particles.''

P Bortkiewicz A et al, (2004) Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review, Med Pr. 2004;55(4):345-51

''A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints''

P Yurekli A et al, (2006) GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats, Electromagn Biol Med 25(3):177-88

''When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.''

P Abdel-Rassoul G et al, (March 2007) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology. 2007 Mar;28(2):434-40

''Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.''

Ghandi O, Kang G, (1996) Effect of the head size on SAR for mobile telephones at 835 and 1900MHz, Bioelectromagnetics Society 23rd Annual Meeting. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, June 10-14, 2001, p. 52

''Increased absorbtion in a child's skull due to less developed skull''
21. - Ghandi O, Kang G, (May 2002) Some present problems and a proposed experimental phantom for SAR compliance testing of cellular telephones at 835 and 1900 MHz, Phys. Med. Biol. 47 1501 18

''The paper also expands the previously reported study of energy deposition in models of adults versus children to two different and distinct anatomically-based models of the adult head, namely the Utah model and the 'Visible Man' model, each of which is increased or reduced by the voxel size to obtain additional head models larger or smaller in all dimensions by 11.1% or -9.1%, respectively. The peak 1 g body-tissue SAR calculated using the widely accepted FDTD method for smaller models is up to 56% higher at 1900 MHz and up to 20% higher at 835 MHz compared to the larger models, with the average models giving intermediate SARs.''

Christ A, Kuster N, (2005) Differences in RF energy absorption in the heads of adults and children, Bioelectromagnetics. 2005;Suppl 7:S31-44

''The conclusions of the review do not support the assumption that the energy exposure increases due to smaller heads, but identifies open issues regarding the dielectric tissue parameters and the thickness of the pinna.''

de Salles AA et al, (2006) Electromagnetic absorption in the head of adults and children due to mobile phone operation close to the head, Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(4):349-60

''The SAR results are compared with the available international recommendations. It is shown that under similar conditions, the 1g-SAR calculated for children is higher than that for the adults. When using the 10-year old child model, SAR values higher than 60% than those for adults are obtained.''

Wiart J et al, (July 2008) Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults, Phys Med Biol. 2008 Jul 7;53(13):3681-95

''The simulations that have been performed show that the differences between the maximum SAR over 10 g estimated in the head models of the adults and the ones of the children are small compared to the standard deviations. But they indicate that the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues of the child models aged between 5 and 8 years is about two times higher than in adult models. This difference is not observed for the child models of children above 8 years old: the maximum SAR in 1 g of peripheral brain tissues is about the same as the one in adult models. Such differences can be explained by the lower thicknesses of pinna, skin and skull of the younger child models.''

P Krause CM et al, (December 2000) Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the electroencephalogram during a visual working memory task, Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Dec;76(12):1659-67

''The results suggest that the exposure to EMF modulates the responses of EEG oscillatory activity approximately 8 Hz specifically during cognitive processes''

P Koivisto M et al, (June 2000) The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory, Neuroreport. 2000 Jun 5;11(8):1641-3

''The RF field speeded up response times when the memory load was three items but no effects of RF were observed with lower loads. The results suggest that RF fields have a measurable effect on human cognitive performance and encourage further studies on the interactions of RF fields with brain function''

P Oktay MF, Dasdag S, (2006) Effects of intensive and moderate cellular phone use on hearing function, Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(1):13-21

''However, detection thresholds in those who talked approximately 2 h per day were found to be higher than those in either moderate users or control subjects. Differences at 4000 Hz for both bone and air conduction for right ears, and 500 Hz, and 4000 Hz bone and air conduction for left ears were significant for mean hearing threshold. This study shows that a higher degree of hearing loss is associated with long-term exposure to electromagnetic (EM) field generated by cellular phones''

P Wiholm C et al, (September 2008) Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory, Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Sep 15.

''The participants were daily mobile phone users, with and without symptoms attributed to regular mobile phone use. Results revealed a main effect of RF exposure and a significant RF exposure by group effect on distance traveled during the trials. The symptomatic group improved their performance during RF exposure while there was no such effect in the non-symptomatic group. Until this new finding is further investigated, we can only speculate about the cause.''

P Huber R et al, (December 2002) Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG, J Sleep Res 2002 Dec;11(4):289-95

''The present results show for the first time that (1) pm-EMF alters waking rCBF and (2) pulse modulation of EMF is necessary to induce waking and sleep EEG changes. Pulse-modulated EMF exposure may provide a new, non-invasive method for modifying brain function for experimental, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.''

P Huber R et al, (February 2005) Exposure to pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields affects regional cerebral blood flow, Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Feb;21(4):1000-6

''This finding supports our previous observation that pulse modulation of RF EMF is necessary to induce changes in the waking and sleep EEG, and substantiates the notion that pulse modulation is crucial for RF EMF-induced alterations in brain physiology''

P Lonn S et al, (November 2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma, Epidemiology. 2004 Nov;15(6):653-9

P Schoemaker MJ et al, (October 2005) Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries, Br J Cancer. 2005 Oct 3;93(7):842-8

''There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1)''

Hours M et al, (October 2007) Cell Phones and Risk of brain and acoustic nerve tumours: the French INTERPHONE case-control study, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2007 Oct;55(5):321-32

P Hardell L et al, (2005) Case-control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000-2003, Neuroepidemiology. 2005;25(3):120-8

''Digital phones yielded OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.05-3.8, whereas for cordless phones OR was not significantly increased. In the multivariate analysis, analogue phones represented a significant risk factor for acoustic neuroma.''

P Hardell L et al, (February 2006) Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003, Environ Res. 2006 Feb;100(2):232-41

''The OR increased with the cumulative number of hours of use and was highest for high-grade astrocytoma. A somewhat increased risk was also found for low-grade astrocytoma and other types of malignant brain tumors, although not significantly so. In multivariate analysis, all three phone types studied showed an increased risk''

P Wolf R, Wolf D, (April 2004) Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station, International Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1(2) April 2004

''A comparison of the relative risk revealed that there were 4.15 times more cases in area A than in the entire population. The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.''

P Eger H et al, (November 2004) The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer, Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17,4 2004

''Newly diagnosed cancers were significantly higher among those who had lived for 10 years within 400 metres of the mast, in operation since 1993, compared with those living further away, and the patients had fallen ill on average 8 years earlier. People living within 400 metres of the mast in Naila had three times the risk of developing cancer than those living further away. This semms to be an undeniable clustering of cancer cases.''

P Tynes T et al, (May 2003) Residential and occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields and malignant melanoma: a population based study, Occup Environ Med. 2003 May;60(5):343-7

''The present study provides some support for an association between exposure to calculated residential magnetic fields and cutaneous malignant melanoma, but because of the lack of a biological hypothesis and the known strong association between solar radiation and melanoma, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further studies would be of interest''

O'Carroll MJ, Henshaw DL, (February 2008) Aggregating disparate epidemiological evidence: comparing two seminal EMF reviews, Risk Anal. 2008 Feb;28(1):225-34

''Aggregating all the studies suggests that results for childhood leukemia are not stronger, numerically, than those for adult leukemia. CDHS did not note the number of significant-positives, but noted the meta-analytic summary and the number of positives, forming a view about the strength of these findings. IARC shows no evidence of considering the aggregation of results other than subjectively. It considered individual studies but this led to a tendency to fragment and dismiss evidence that is intrinsically highly significant. We make recommendations for future reviews.''

P Feychting M et al, (July 2003) Occupational magnetic field exposure and neurodegenerative disease, Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):413-9; discussion 427-8

''Our study gives some support to the hypothesis that EMF exposure increases the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, and suggests that magnetic field exposure may represent a late-acting influence in the disease process. Electric shock is an unlikely explanation for the increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in ''electrical and electronics work'' in this study''

P Hakansson N et al, (July 2003) Neurodegenerative diseases in welders and other workers exposed to high levels of magnetic fields, Epidemiology. 2003 Jul;14(4):420-6; discussion 427-8

''The findings support previous observations of an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and ALS among employees occupationally exposed to ELF-MF. Further studies based on morbidity data are warranted''

P Ahlbom A, (2001) Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF, Bioelectromagnetics. 2001;Suppl 5:S132-43

''It is concluded that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there are relatively strong data indicating that electric utility work may be associated with an increased risk. However, EMF exposure is only one of several possible explanations to this. For Alzheimer's disease the combined data on an association with EMF are weaker than that for ALS. For suicide an overall assessment yields the conclusion that the support for an association is weak. For depressive symptoms the assessment is more complex, but the overall conclusion is nevertheless that the evidence is relatively weak. For other diseases, such as Parkinson's, there is not enough information for an assessment''

P Lee GM et al, (January 2002) A nested case-control study of residential and personal magnetic field measures and miscarriages, Epidemiology. 2002 Jan;13(1):21-31

''The odds ratio conveyed by being above a 24-hour time-weighted average of 2 milligauss was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-2.1). Exposure assessment measurements at 12 weeks were poorly correlated with those taken at 30 weeks. Nonetheless, the prospective substudy results regarding miscarriage risk were consistent with the nested study results''

P Li DK et al, (January 2002) A population-based prospective cohort study of personal exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage, Epidemiology. 2002 Jan;13(1):9-20

''Our findings provide strong prospective evidence that prenatal maximum magnetic field exposure above a certain level (possibly around 16 mG) may be associated with miscarriage risk. This observed association is unlikely to be due to uncontrolled biases or unmeasured confounders''

P Cao YN et al, (August 2006) Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on reproduction of female mice and development of offsprings, Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2006 Aug;24(8):468-70

''Exposure to ELF EMFs during pregnancy period can cause adverse effects on pregnancy of female mice and development of offsprings''

P Garcia AM et al, (April 2008) Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis, Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 2

''Available epidemiological evidence suggests an association between occupational exposure to ELF-EMF and AD. However, some limitations affecting the results from this meta-analysis should be considered. More information on relevant duration and time windows of exposure, on biological mechanisms for this potential association and on interactions between electromagnetic fields exposure and established risk factors for AD is needed.''

Hutter, H-P, H Moshammer, P Wallner and M Kundi. 2006. Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup. Environ. Med 63;307-313 .

Navarro, E.A., J. Segura, M. Portols, and C. Gmez-Perretta. 2003. The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 22 (2&3): 161-169

Santini, R., P. Santini, J.M. Danze, P. Le Ruz, M. Seigne. 2002. Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: I. Incidences of distances and sex. Pathologie Biologie 50: 369-373

Santini, R; Santini, P; Danze, JM; Le Ruz, P; Seigne, M. 2003. Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of base stations: II Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of sub-jects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors. Pathologie Biologie 51: 412-415

Santini, R; Santini, P; Le Ruz, P; Danze, JM; Seigne, M (2003). Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations

Santini, R; Santini, P; Danze, JM; Le Ruz, P; Seigne, M (2002). Symptoms experienced by people in vicinity of basestation: incidences of distance and sex PATHOLOGIE BIOLOGIE, 50 (10): 621-621

Voor de originele bron (1-46) zie:
www.powerwatch.org.uk/news/20081010_sense_about_science.asp#ref17 .

en (47-52):
www.kennisplatformveiligmobielnetwerk.info/1679414.htm .

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