Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing EMF at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis

vrijdag, 06 mei 2022 - Categorie: Onderzoeken

Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(4), 521;
Received: 9 January 2022 / Revised: 4 April 2022 / Accepted: 7 April 2022 / Published: 9 April 2022

by Roberta Pecoraro 1,*,†ORCID,Santi Concetto Pavone 2,3,†ORCID,Elena Maria Scalisi 1,Carmen Sica 1,Sara Ignoto 1,Martina Contino 1,Antonio Salvaggio 4ORCID,Dimitra Marmara 5,Gino Sorbello 2,3ORCID,Loreto Di Donato 2,3,‡ andMaria Violetta Brundo 1,*,‡ORCID

1. Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy
2. Department of Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering (DIEEI), University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
3. Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni (CNIT), Viale G.P. Usberti, 181/A Pal. 3, 43124 Parma, Italy
4. Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Sicily “A. Mirri”, Via Gino Marinuzzi, 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
5. Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, University Hill, 81100 Mytilene, Greece

Recently, an increasing use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices which use these technologies emit in new spectral regions an electromagnetic radiation (EMF) which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sperm samples were collected from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis and placed in seawater. Once we evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields radiated by a pyramidal horn antenna. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min by a light microscope and using an Eosin test. Ten replications were performed for each time series, and statistical analysis was carried out by t-test. Sperm motility decreased after 10 min of exposure, and after 30 min most of the spermatozoa were immobile and not vital. This study provides useful data on the potential ecological impact of the high-band 5G on animal fertility, the effect of which is currently under investigation.

Keywords: mussel; vitality; motility; millimeter waves; specific absorption rate (SAR)

5. Conclusions
This study indicates that electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz can affect the sperm quality in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The significative decrease observed in sperm motility after only 10 min of exposure represents a crucial factor to be considered because it can threaten the reproductivity of the species. This study provides useful data on the potential impact of high frequency EMFs on aquatic animals and cells, which is currently poorly investigated. Future research could benefit from specific investigations into the impact of 5G to better monitor the effects on animal organisms and to fill the gap currently known about the interactions with artificial sources of electromagnetic fields.

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