Electromagnetic Radiation due to Cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies: How safe are we?
dinsdag, 10 maart 2020 - Categorie: Onderzoeken
IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 42980-43000, 2020.
NAREN 1, ANUBHV ELHENCE 1, VINAY CHAMOLA 1, AND MOHSEN GUIZANI 2 (FELLOW, IEEE)
1 Department of EEE, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani 333031, India
2 Department of Computer Science, Qatar University, Qatar.
Corresponding author: Mohsen Guizani. Author (e-mail: email@example.com).
The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted out of wireless communication modules in various IoT devices (especially used for healthcare applications due to their close proximity to the body) have been identified by researchers as biologically hazardous to humans as well as other living beings. Different countries have different regulations to limit the radiation density levels caused by these devices. The radiation absorbed by an individual depends on various factors such as the device they use, the proximity of use, the type of antenna, the relative orientation of the antenna on the device, and many more. Several standards exist which have tried to quantify the radiation levels and come up with safe limits of EMR absorption to prevent human harm. In this work, we determine the radiation concern levels in several scenarios using a handheld radiation meter by correlating the findings with several international standards, which are determined based on thorough scientific evidence. This study also analyzes the EMR from common devices used in day to day life such as smartphones, laptops, Wi-Fi routers, hotspots, wireless earphones, smartwatches, Bluetooth speakers and other wireless accessories using a handheld radio frequency radiation measurement device. The procedure followed in this paper is so detailed that it can also be utilized by the general public as a tutorial to evaluate their own safety with respect to EMR exposure. We present a summary of the most prominent health hazards which have been known to occur due to EMR exposure. We also discuss some individual and collective human-centric protective and preventive measures that can be undertaken to reduce the risk of EMR absorption. This paper analyses radiation safety in pre-5G networks and uses the insight gained to raise valuable concerns regarding EMR safety in the upcoming 5G networks.
Topic: Antenna and Propagation for 5G and Beyond
Published in: IEEE Access ( Volume: 8 )
Page(s): 42980 - 43000
Date of Publication: 27 February 2020
Electronic ISSN: 2169-3536
INDEX TERMS EMR, wireless, safety, standards, health, protection
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