Recent Research on WiFi Effects
donderdag, 30 maart 2017 - Dossier: Algemeen
24 maart 2017
Also see my WiFi Resource List.
For a list of more than 60 research studies that found adverse biologic or health effects from Wi-Fi or radiation similar to Wi-Fi, see a website maintained by scientists in the United Kingdom.
Recent Studies of Wi-Fi Biologic Effects
(Updated Mar 24, 2017)
Hassanshahi A, Shafeie SA, Fatemi I, Hassanshahi E, Allahtavakoli M, Shabani M, Roohbakhsh A, Shamsizadeh A. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.Neurol Sci. 2017 Mar 22.
Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively) was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.
M. Taheri, S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Moradi, S. Mansouri, G. R. Hatam, F. Nouri. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Published online January 23, 2017.
Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.
Bacteria are becoming resistant to almost all commonly available antibiotics and this is a worldwide problem.
Listeria monocytogenes ... was recognized as the main cause of neonatal infection, meningitis, and sepsis. Listeria infection in adult patients is related to immunocompromised systems like HIV infection, organ transplants, individuals who have received corticosteroids, and immunosuppressant drugs for their malignancies. Escherichia coli known as E coli is a common cause of life-threatening infections such as bloodstream and urinary tract infections, otitis media, and other complications.
A D-Link Wi-Fi router (D-Link, D-Link Corporation, Taiwan) was used in this study as the exposure source. During the exposure period, data were exchanged between the modem and a laptop computer that was placed in another room (5 m away from the Wi-Fi router).
The Wi-Fi router operated with a power level of 1 W and the specific absorption rate at the distance 14 cm between the bacterial suspension (broth medium) and Wi-Fi router was 0.13 W/kg. During the exposure, bacterial samples were collected in different times 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours after being exposed using sterile swabs.
In this study, all exposures were performed using a GSM 900 MHz mobile simulator operating in the “Talk mode.”
All experiments were replicated 3 times for exposed and nonexposed groups.
Listeria monocytogenes response to each antibiotic was different, for DOX (doxycycline), and the window response occurred after 6 hours of exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation. However, for other antibiotics, these changes were only observed at the ninth hour of exposure to Wi-Fi while this response could not be observed for RF simulator radiation. After 9 hours of exposure to Wi-Fi for CIPR and SXT antibiotics, bacteria had a tendency to become more resistant. This was in contrast to the pattern observed for LEVO, CTX, and CTR antibiotics, which an increased sensitivity was observed.
In the current study, the pattern of the response of E coli to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation was identical. The maximum differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed between 6 and 9 hours of the bacterial exposure to radiation (Figures 1 and 2). After 12 hours of exposure, the bacterial responses to radiation as a stressor led to returning to the preexposure status.
... our data confirm previous studies that showed that radiofrequency radiation could induce changes in cell growth and antibiotic sensitivity in E coli.
Based on our results, it can be concluded that the bacterial strains used in this study respond differently to EMFs. These bacteria were capable of responding to environmental stresses that act by activating some specific systems such as ion channels, change via the membrane, DNA repair system, and probably ion efflux pumps in the membrane as well as interactions of molecules and antibacterial agents. There are some ambiguities that need further investigations regarding answering questions such as which cellular mechanism is responsible for adaptation? Which factors are involved in alterations of antibacterial sensitivity? And subsequently, what are the differences in the response to radiation in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria? Moreover, experiments on different bacterial strains with various electromagnetic fields should be performed in the future to better clarify these uncertainties.
Qureshi ST, Memon SA, Abassi AR, Sial MA, Bughio FA. Radiofrequency radiations induced genotoxic and carcinogenic effects on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) root tip cells. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. Published online Feb 11, 2017.
Present study was under taken to predict the possible DNA damages (genotoxicity) and carcinogenicity caused by radiofrequency radiations (RF) to living tissue. Dry seeds of chickpea were treated with GSM cell phone (900 MHz) and laptop (3.31 GHz) as RF source for 24 and 48 h. Untreated seeds were used as (0 h) negative control and Gamma rays (250 Gray) as positive control. Plant chromosomal aberration assay was used as genotoxicity marker. All the treatment of RF inhibits seed germination percentage. 48 h laptop treatment has the most negative effect as compared to untreated control. A decrease was observed in mitotic index (M.I) and increase in abnormality index (A.I) with the increase in exposure duration and frequency in (Hz). Cell membrane damages were also observed only in 48 h exposure of cell phone and laptop (RF). Maximum nuclear membrane damages and ghost cells were again recorded in 48 h exposure of cell phone and laptop. The radiofrequency radiations (900 MHz and 3.31 GHz) are only genotoxic as they induce micronuclei, bi-nuclei, multi-nuclei and scattered nuclei but could be carcinogenic as 48 h incubation of RF induced fragmentation and ghost cells. Therefore cell phones and laptop should not be used unnecessarily to avoid possible genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.
It is concluded that radiofrequency radiations are genotoxic as they induced chromosomal aberrations in chickpea mitotic cells and the presence of ghost cells is clear indication of their carcinogenic potential. To avoid reported DNA damages in this work cell phones should always be used either for short duration or with hands-free for long duration and they should not be kept in pockets or near body. Laptops should not be used unnecessarily for enjoyment purpose. It must be placed on desk top rather lap to minimize their exposure to human body. Further assay of carcinogenity are recommended on mouse and human cell lines.
Karipidis K, Henderson S, Wijayasinghe D, Tjong L, Tinker R.Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields From Wi-Fi in Australian Schools.Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2017 Jan 10.
Note: Typical and peak RF levels were found to be lower than ICNIRP guidelines. However, many researchers believe that the guidelines are inadequate to ensure safety. Furthermore, peak RF levels were averaged over 1 minute which is too long as short-term intense pulses may have biologic effects.
The increasing use of Wi-Fi in schools and other places has given rise to public concern that the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi have the potential to adversely affect children. The current study measured typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi and other sources in 23 schools in Australia. All of the RF measurements were much lower than the reference levels recommended by international guidelines for protection against established health effects. The typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi in locations occupied by children in the classroom were of the order of 10-4 and 10-2% of the exposure guidelines, respectively. Typical RF levels in the classroom were similar between Wi-Fi and radio but higher than other sources. In the schoolyard typical RF levels were higher for radio, TV and mobile phone base stations compared to Wi-Fi. The results of this study showed that the typical RF exposure of children from Wi-Fi at school is very low and comparable or lower to other sources in the environment.
Wi-Fi transmissions consist of sequences of RF burst signals or pulses ranging in duration depending on the amount of data being carried by a pulse(15). The proportion of time that Wi-Fi transmits RF signals is called the duty cycle. Joseph et al.(14) in measuring Wi-Fi in 176 different urban locations (outdoors, homes, offices) found a median duty cycle of 1.4% over all the measurements. Particularly in schools, Khalid et al.(10) in measuring Wi-Fi in six schools found a mean duty cycle from the access points of 4.8%. In our study duty cycle was measured separately for the 2.45 and 5 GHz transmissions when performing the stationary Wi-Fi measurements in the centre of the classroom. The median duty cycle for 23 schools that were measured in the current study was 6.3 and 2.4% for 2.45 and 5 GHz transmissions, respectively.
Members of the public often ask about the cumulative exposure that a child receives when using a Wi-Fi device in a classroom in which a number of children are simultaneously using Wi-Fi. When downloading files, most of the transmissions will be from the access point, not the students’ device. When downloading and uploading only a portion of the maximum capacity of a network would be used even in a classroom filled with children using Wi-Fi. The Wi-Fi network divides RF transmissions among the access points and client devices therefore the individual RF exposure to a child in a classroom that is using a device consists of sequential exposures from all active devices, the majority of which are located at some distance away(15). For the majority of schools (20) the measurements in the current study were conducted in an empty classroom (to avoid lesson disruption) with an access point and one laptop. In three schools, measurements were conducted with students or teachers present and using Wi-Fi devices. A comparison between measurements conducted in empty classrooms and classrooms with multiple students/teachers using Wi-Fi showed no significant difference in the RF levels (p > 0.1 for all); although this may have been due to low numbers (only three schools measured with multiple users in the classroom).
Open Access Paper: rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2017/01/10/rpd.ncw370.long
Shekoohi-Shooli F, Mortazavi SM, Shojaei-Fard MB, Nematollahi S, Tayebi M. Evaluation of the Protective Role of Vitamin C on the Metabolic and Enzymatic Activities of the Liver in the Male Rats After Exposure to 2.45 GHz Of Wi-Fi Routers. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2016 Sep 1;6(3):157-164. eCollection 2016.
BACKGROUND: The use of devices emitted microwave radiation such as mobile phones, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) routers, etc. is increased rapidly. It has caused a great concern; the researchers should identify its effects on people's health. We evaluated the protective role of Vitamin C on the metabolic and enzymatic activities of the liver after exposure to Wi-Fi routers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: 70 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 7 groups (10 rats in each group).The first stage one-day test: Group A (received vitamin C 250 mg/kg/day orally together with 8- hour/day Wi-Fi exposure). Group B (exposed to Wi-Fi radiation). Group C (received vitamin C). Group D or Control (was neither exposed to radiation of Wi-Fi modem nor did receive vitamin C). The second phase of experiment had done for five consecutive days. It involved Group E (received vitamin C), Group F (exposed to Wi-Fi radiation), Group G (received vitamin C together with Wi-Fi radiation). The distance between animals' restrainers was 20 cm away from the router antenna. Finally, blood samples were collected and assayed the level of hepatic enzymes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) aspartate amino transferase (ASL), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and the concentration of Blood Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL).
RESULTS: Data obtained from the One day test showed an increase in concentration of blood glucose, decrease in Triglyceride level and GGT factor (P<0.05), however no observed significant difference on the Cholesterol, HDL, LDL level and hepatic enzymes activities in compare to control group. Groups of the five-day test showed reduction in the amount of blood glucose, elevation of cholesterol level and LDL relative to control group (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: WiFi exposure may exert alternations on the metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes activities through stress oxidative and increasing of free radicals, but the use of vitamin C protects them from changing induced. Also taking optimum dose of vitamin C is essential for radioprotective effect and maintaining optimum health.
Halgamuge MN. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.Electromagn Biol Med. 2016 Sep 20:1-23. Epub ahead of print
AIM: The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants.
SUBJECT AND METHODS: In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work.
RESULTS: Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p < 0.0001), (ii) 1500 and 2400 MHz (p < 0.0001) and (iii) 3500 and 8000 MHz (p = 0.0161).
CONCLUSION: The available literature on the effect of RF-EMFs on plants to date observed the significant trend of radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress proteins, etc.). This study should be useful as a reference for researchers conducting epidemiological studies and the long-term experiments, using whole organisms, to observe the effects of RF-EMFs.
... our review shows that there is a substantial amount of studies which indicate that plants have experienced physiological or morphological changes due to radiofrequency radiation and show statistically significant changes for the short-term exposure duration (up to 13 weeks). In contrast, the results obtained from the long-term exposure studies (two publications using nine different exposures with exposure duration between 3 months to 6 years) support no physiological effects on plants when exposed to radiofrequency radiation from mobile phone radiation. This would bring a remarkable point to the discussion about the apparent absence of response to the long-term exposure that may be interpreted as adaptations. On the other hand, phenotypic plasticity of plants will permit them to change their structure and function; hence, plants to adapt to environmental change (Nicotra et al., 2010). Plants are naturally affected by environmental stresses due to their immobility. Plants could respond to the environmental factors of wind, rain, electric field and ultraviolet radiation and adjust its physiological condition to adapt to the change of environment (Braam and Davis, 1990; Braam et al., 1996; Mary and Braam, 1997) .... our previous findings (Halgamuge et al., 2015) indicate that the biological effects considerably relied on field strength and amplitude modulation of the applied field.
Paknahad M, Mortazavi SM, Shahidi S, Mortazavi G, Haghani M. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations. . J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2016 Jul 13;14:12.
BACKGROUND: Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.
METHODS: Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non-carious extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). The control group was stored in non-environment. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. The concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the groups was evaluated by using a cold-vapor atomic absorption Mercury Analyzer System. The independent t test was used to evaluate any significant differences in mercury release between the two groups.
RESULTS: The mean (±SD) concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva of the Wi-Fi exposed teeth samples was 0.056 ± .025 mg/L, while it was only 0.026 ± .008 mg/L in the non-exposed control samples. This difference was statistically significant (P =0.009).
CONCLUSION: Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations.
Open Access Paper: bit.ly/2abAgzp
Kuybulu AE, Öktem F, Çiriş İM, Sutcu R, Örmeci AR, Çömlekçi S, Uz E. Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney. Ren Fail. 2016 Feb 24:1-10. Epub ahead of print
Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time.
Methods The study was conducted in three groups of rats which were pre-natal, post-natal. and sham exposed groups. Oxidative stress markers and histological evaluation of kidney tissues were studied.
Results Renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant (TOS) levels of pre-natal group were high and total antioxidant (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were low. Spot urine NAG/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in pre- and post-natal groups (p < 0.001). Tubular injury was detected in most of the specimens in post-natal groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low-intensity staining with Bax in cortex, high-intensity staining with Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011).
Conclusion Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.
Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8. pii: S0891-0618(16)00005-3.
Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) providers have become essential in our daily lives, as wireless technology is evolving at a dizzying pace. Although there are different frequency generators, one of the most commonly used Wi-Fi devices are 2.4GHz frequency generators. These devices are heavily used in all areas of life but the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation emission on users is generally ignored. Yet, an increasing share of the public expresses concern on this issue. Therefore, this study intends to respond to the growing public concern. The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats.
The study was conducted on 16 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. The rats in the experimental group (n=8) were exposed to 2.4GHz frequency radiation for over a year. The rats in the sham control group (n=8) were subjected to the same experimental conditions except the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. After the exposure period was complete the possible DNA damage on the rat's brain, liver, kidney, skin, and testicular tissues was detected through the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet) method. The amount of DNA damage was measured as percentage tail DNA value.
Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the% tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05). However the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (p<0.01).
In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation.
Rats in the exposure group were subject to 2.4 GHz RF radiation 24 h/d for 12 months. Rats in both groups were kept 50 cm far away from the antenna of the generator (Fig. 1). The same experimental conditions were applied to the rats in the sham group, except the generator was turned off.
Wireless local area networks (WLAN) signal generator with 100 mW peak (50 mW rms) power was connected to a tuned half wavelength dipole antenna and the dipole antenna was positioned the form of plane waves which represent the situation in most applications of Wi-Fi or WLAN equipment.
Whole body average (rms) and maximum SAR values were respectively determined as 141.4 microwatts/kg and 7127 microwatts/kg.
The present study shows that as prolonged exposure to RF radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices causes DNA damage, a low intensity RF radiation could affect male fertility. Further longitudinal studies with oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage markers are needed to determine whether DNA damage in reproduction cells that indicates infertility is formed due to oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to Wi-Fi usage.
As a result, it is observed that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation caused an increase in the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of rats, but this increase was not significant. Therefore it is determined that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation
does not cause the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of the rats. However it is concluded that the long-term usage of 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency wireless internet providers could cause a potential risk of DNA damage in the testes.
Yüksel M, Nazıroğlu M, Özkaya MO. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring. Endocrine. 2015 Nov 14.
We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring.
Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. The electric field density was set at 20 dB and 11 V/m in order to obtain 0.1 W/kg whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR).
Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats.
In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. It is likely that TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry in the uterus of pregnant rats involves accumulation of oxidative stress and opening of mitochondrial membrane pores that consequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, substantial swelling of the mitochondria with rupture of the outer membrane and release of oxidants such as superoxide (O2 -) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The superoxide radical is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important antioxidant enzyme for removing lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide and it catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water.
TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. It is likely that TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry in the uterus of pregnant rats involves accumulation of oxidative stress and opening of mitochondrial membrane pores that consequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, substantial swelling of the mitochondria with rupture of the outer membrane and release of oxidants such as superoxide (O2 −) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The superoxide radical is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important antioxidant enzyme for removing lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide and it catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water.
Çelik Ö, Kahya MC, Nazıroğlu M. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns.J Chem Neuroanat. 2015 Oct 28. pii: S0891-0618(15)00074-5.
Oxidative stress plays important role in biology of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)
2.45 GHz increased oxidative stress in brain and liver pregnant rats and their newborns.
Brain seems sensitive to oxidative injury in the development of newborns.
An excessive production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS) and reduced antioxidant defence systems resulting from electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure may lead to oxidative brain and liver damage and degradation of membranes during pregnancy and development of rat pups.
We aimed to investigate the effects of Wi-Fi-induced EMR on the brain and liver antioxidant redox systems in the rat during pregnancy and development. Sixteen pregnant rats and their 48 newborns were equally divided into control and EMR groups. The EMR groups were exposed to 2.45GHz EMR (1hour/day for 5 days/week) from pregnancy to 3 weeks of age. Brain cortex and liver samples were taken from the newborns between the first and third weeks.
In the EMR groups, lipid peroxidation levels in the brain and liver were increased following EMR exposure; however, the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and vitamin A, vitamin E and -carotene concentrations were decreased in the brain and liver. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C concentrations in the brain were also lower in the EMR groups than in the controls; however, their concentrations did not change in the liver.
In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns.
Saili, Hanini, Smirani, et al. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45 GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 40(2):600-605. September 2015.
• ECG and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI.
• Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency and arterial blood pressure.
• WIFI affect catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) efficacy on cardiovascular system.
• Radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.
Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart.
Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control.
These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.
The animals were exposed to an access point (AP) from WIFI device (D-Link DWL-3200 AP with 802.11 g mode and WPA2 network protection) as previously described in Salah et al. (2013). WIFI integrated two omnidirectional antennas that were setup for internet broadcast via wireless at 2.45 GHz. The sham control rabbits were placed under the same condition without applying RF (0 Hz). Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart (animal in dorsal decubitus).
Experimental design: The rabbits were divided into six groups and for each group six rabbits and treated by intravenous injection as follows:
Group 1. Normal healthy control.
Group 2. Normal healthy: rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h).
Group 3. Rabbits were intravenously injected once with epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg).
Group 4. Rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h) following once intravenous injection of epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg).
Group 5. Rabbits were intravenously injected once with dopamine (0.50 ml/kg).
Group 6. Rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h) following once intravenous injection (iv) of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg).
Our results show clearly that WIFI increased heart rate and arterial blood pressure probably via direct and/or indirect pathways. The direct effects of RF could be related to their action on Ca++ and Zn++ homeostasis especially on divalent mineral flux modulated by EMF as shown previously by Amara et al. (2007).
Our studies point that WIFI is not completely safe at home near the animal or human body because it employ harmful radio waves. But it is safer compared to cellphone that it is close to our brain during communications. WIFI signals are everywhere. If you switched off your WiFi at night, you are still exposed to the WIFI signals coming in from neighbors but we have a significant reduction of the bioeffects of WIFI with distance from the router. Future investigations will focus on the long term bioeffects of WIFI placed at an important distance from the animal or the human.
Conclusion: These results suggested that exposure to WIFI (2.45 GHz) affect HR variability leading to tachycardia and hypertension. The WIFI alter the physiological action of catecholamines on cardiovascular system perhaps via the disruption of the interaction between ligand-receptors in rabbit.
Yildirim et al. What is harmful for male fertility; cell phone or the wireless internet? Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. Published online Jul 26, 2015.
In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters.
We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia.
There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless internet usage compared with the wired internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.039).
We have also explored the negative effect of wireless internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results.
Infertility is a common disorder that affects 15% of couples and nearly half of the cases are due to male infertility. As mentioned above, RF-EMR affects many organs including the testes by a direct or a thermal effect 6. In one study, detrimental effects of RF-EMR on Leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, and especially the spermatozoa were clearly defined 1. Although RF-EMR reduces testosterone levels, impairs spermatogenesis, and causes sperm DNA damage 4, the relationship between RF-EMR devices and male infertility is still controversial.
According to an anonymous questionnaire, daily active cell phone usage was divided into three groups as following: Group A, < 30 min/d; Group B, from 30 min/d to 2 h/d; and Group C, > 2 h/d. Habits of carrying a mobile phone was recorded as (A) in the pocket of trousers, (B) in a handbag, or (C) in the pocket of jackets. Wireless internet usage was divided in to three groups, Group A: < 30 min/d; Group B, from 30 min/d to 2 h/d; and Group C, > 2 h/d. Internet usage types recorded as wireless or not.
Cell phone using duration: According to our results, there was no significant difference between these three groups regarding sperm parameters such as semen volume, sperm count, total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count, and morphology of the sperm.
Habits of carrying mobile phone: There was a significant difference among the three carriage places regarding only sperm morphology (p = 0.028) but no other sperm parameters (Table 2).
Wireless internet using durations: When we compare the wireless internet users regarding the duration of internet usage, there were a significant decrease of total motile sperm count and progressive motile sperm count (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033; respectively; Table 3) ... there were no significance among the semen parameters regarding the wired internet group (p = 0.128).
Type of internet usage: Total motile sperm count and progressive motile sperm count were lower in the wireless internet usage group compared with the wired internet usage group (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018; respectively). Type of internet connection does not affect the other sperm parameters (Table 4).
There was a negative correlation between the cell phone usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.064, p = 0.04). Similarly, there was also a negative correlation between the wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.019). Otherwise there were no significant correlations among the other four main question branches (cell phone usage time, cell phone carriage habits, wireless internet usage time. and internet connection type) and sperm parameters.
Turkish Telecommunication and Information Technology Agency declared that the daily usage of internet is nearly 6 hours in Turkey 15. Therefore, according to us, Wi-Fi usage needs to get more attention than cell phone usage due to its higher frequency ranges and longer exposure times 16. Even though there are some studies performed on the effects of RF-EMR and cell phones on male fertility, there is not so much scientific data about the association between Wi-Fi internet usage and male fertility 17. Unlike other RF-EMR sources, devices such as laptops and tablets usually stay near the reproductive organs.
The possible effects of RF-EMR due to cellular phone and Wi-Fi usage should be investigated by researchers in more detail because the harmful effects should be proven instead of just implying the possible detrimental effects. Our findings display contrast results when we compared them with existing information and beliefs. We have not seen any difference between sperm parameters and cell phone and wireless internet usage. Larger population based studies combined with the laboratory results are needed to reach a definitive conclusion.
Shokri et al. Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study. Cell J. 2015 Summer;17(2): 322-31. Epub 2015 Jul 11.
In today's world, 2.45-GHz radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from industrial, scientific, medical, military and domestic applications is the main part of indoor-outdoor electromagnetic field exposure. Long-term effects of 2.45-GHz Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system was not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the major cause of male infertility during short- and long-term exposure of Wi-Fi radiation.
This is an animal experimental study, which was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IRAN, from June to August 2014. Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n=27) were exposed to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls. Animals were divided into the three following groups: I. control group (n=9) including healthy animals without any exposure to the antenna, II. 1-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 1 hour per day during two months and III.7-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 7 hours per day during 2 months. Sperm parameters, caspase-3 concentrations, histomorphometric changes of testis in addition to the apoptotic indexes were evaluated in the exposed and control animals.
Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern. In parallel, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group.
Regarding the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the time-dependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places.
The exposure system was a chamber (180 cm×80 cm×70 cm), designed for whole-body exposure of free-moving rats to a Wi-Fi signal. Two Wi-Fi antennas (NanoStation Loco M2, 2.45 GHz, 8.5 dBi, Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. USA) were placed at the center of two sides of the chamber.
We found that sperm concentration, motility and morphology were affected significantly by exposure to the 2.45 GHz RFR from a Wi-Fi antenna. The observed effects were dependent on the longevity of exposure per day.
It was also shown that microwave radiation decreases the sperm count (20). A plausible explanation for the impaired sperm motility could be induced oxidative stress by RF-EMW from Wi-Fi devices (12).
High frequency, specifically 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, induces a decrease in sperm parameters along with an increase in apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the seminiferous tubules of Wistar rats, specially in 7-hour group. It reduced seminal vesicle weight following 2.45 GHz exposure. Considering the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern about the time-dependent exposure of our body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi antenna.
Open Access Paper: 1.usa.gov/1KncYRN
Dasdag et al. Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. Int J Radiat Biol 2015 Jul; 9(17):555-561.
PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play a paramount role in growth, differentiation, proliferation and cell death by suppressing one or more target genes. However, their interaction with radiofrequencies is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) system on some of the miRNA in brain tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 16 Wistar Albino adult male rats by dividing them into two groups such as sham (n = 8) and exposure (n = 8). Rats in the exposure group were exposed to 2.4 GHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 24 hours a day for 12 months (one year). The same procedure was applied to the rats in the sham group except the Wi-Fi system was turned off. Immediately after the last exposure, rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed. miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-106b-5p, miR-107, miR-125a-3p in brain were investigated in detail.
RESULTS: The results revealed that long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p (adj p* = 0.010) and miR-107 (adj p* = 0.005). We observed that mir 107 expression is 3.3 times and miR- 106b-5p expression is 3.65 times lower in the exposure group than in the control group. However, miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-125a-3p levels in brain were not altered.
CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNA expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNA expression levels.
Soran ML, Stan M, Niinemets U, Copolovici L. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.J Plant Physiol. 2014 Jul 8;171(15):1436-1443.
Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied.
Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens.
Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied.
These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.
Plant material including parsley (Petroselinum crispum cv. Plain leaved 2) (P), dill (Anethum graveolens subsp. hortorum cv. Common) (D) and celery (Apium graveolens cv. Pascal Giant) (C) were grown in laboratory from seeds obtained from Agrosel.
The microwave irradiation was performed at bands corresponding to mobile devices (GSM) using a modified AP5200 generator (D-LINK, China), operating in four bands (860–910 MHz frequency range, Pout 29 dBm), and to wireless router (WLAN) using a D-LINK wireless router 802.11 g/2.4 GHz (2.412–2.48 GHz frequency range, Pout 19 dBm). In the irradiation chamber there is one stick antenna placed in the center of the ceiling. The exposure levels where chosen in agreement with the microwave irradiation levels measured in open space for heavily used GSM networks (100 mW/m2) and for indoor WLAN (70 mW/m2) communication protocols.
Irradiation was performed during three weeks, after which plants were removed from the chambers for measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission and analyses of leaf structure and essential oil content. All measurements of VOC emission and analyses of leaf structure and essential oil content have been replicated with eight different plants.
The presented data collectively suggest that microwave irradiation constitute a stress to the plants, resulting in enhanced emissions of GLV, up-regulation of terpenoid emissions and modification in essential oil content and foliage anatomy. Anatomical and emission traits suggested that WLAN-frequency irradiation resulted in more severe stress than GSM-frequency irradiation, but the effect of WLAN-frequency irradiation on essential oil was inhibitory. There was an agreement between anatomical and chemical traits with anatomically most resistant species Apium graveolens being chemically least responsive.
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