Cell Phone Radiation Boosts Cancer Rates in Animals;

donderdag, 26 mei 2016 - Categorie: Berichten Internationaal

Bron: microwavenews.com/news-center/ntp-cancer-results
25 mei 2016

$25 Million NTP Study Finds Brain Tumors

U.S. Government Expected To Advise Public of Health Risk

Hieronder de tekst van het artikel, voor de vele links daarin zie de originele tekst, de link hierboven, zie ook de vele links met belangrijke helemaal onderaan.

The cell phone cancer controversy will never be the same again.

The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) is expected to issue a public announcement that cell phone radiation presents a cancer risk for humans. The move comes soon after its recently completed study showed statistically significant increases in cancer among rats that had been exposed to GSM or CDMA signals for two-years.

Discussions are currently underway among federal agencies on how to inform the public about the new findings. NTP senior managers believe that these results should be released as soon as possible because just about everyone is exposed to wireless radiation all the time and therefore everyone is potentially at risk.

The new results contradict the conventional wisdom, advanced by doctors, biologists, physicists, epidemiologists, engineers, journalists and government officials, among other pundits, that such effects are impossible. This view is based, in part, on the lack of an established mechanism for RF radiation from cell phones to induce cancer. For instance, earlier this week (May 22), a medical doctor in Michigan wrote an opinion piece for the Wall Street Journal stating that, “There is no known mechanism by which mobile phones might cause brain tumors.” He went on to argue that there is no need to warn the public about health risks.

The NTP findings show that as the intensity of the radiation increased, so did the incidence of cancer among the rats. “There was a significant dose-response relationship,” a reliable source, who has been briefed on the results, told Microwave News. No effect was seen among mice. The source asked that his/her name not be used since the NTP has not yet made a formal announcement. The rats were exposed to three different exposure levels (1.5, 3 and 6 W/Kg, whole body exposures ) and two different types of cell phone radiation, GSM and CDMA.

An Amazing Coincidence?

Importantly, the exposed rats were found to have higher rates of two types of cancers: glioma, a tumor of the glial cells in the brain, and malignant schwannoma of the heart, a very rare tumor. None of the unexposed control rats developed either type of tumor.

A number of epidemiological studies have linked cell phones to both gliomas and to Schwann cell tumors. The Interphone study, for instance, found an association between the use of cell phones and gliomas.

The sheath that wraps around cranial nerves —such as the one that connects the inner ear to the brain— is made of Schwann cells. Tumors of those cells are called acoustic neuromas. That is, an acoustic neuroma is a type of Schwannoma. At least four different epidemiological studies have found an association between the use of cell phones and acoustic neuromas.

Ron Melnick, who led the team that designed the NTP study and who is now retired, confirmed the general outline of the results detailed by the confidential source. “The NTP tested the hypothesis that cell phone radiation could not cause health effects and that hypothesis has now been disproved,” he said in a telephone interview. “The experiment has been done and, after extensive reviews, the consensus is that there was a carcinogenic effect.”

“These data redefine the cell phone radiation controversy,” Melnick said. The safety of cell phones has been debated for more than 20 years, especially after the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF radiation as a possible human carcinogen in 2011.

“This is a major public health concern because the cells which became cancerous in the rats were the same types of cells as those that have been reported to develop into tumors in cell phone epidemiological studies,” Melnick added. “For this to be a chance coincidence would be truly amazing.”

The NTP radiation project, which has been underway for more than a decade, is the most expensive ever undertaken by the toxicology program. More than $25 million has been spent so far.

Another interesting coincidence is that the Ramazzini study of rats in Bologna exposed to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) EMFs also developed a significant increase in malignant schwannoma of the heart.

NTP Stands By the Study Results

Because of the importance of these results to public health, the NTP alerted the highest levels of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where resistance prompted further reviews. No serious flaws in the data or the conduct of the studies were identified.

Senior managers including Linda Birnbaum, the director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) who also serves as the director of the NTP, and John Bucher, the associate director of the NTP, who is in charge of the cell phone study, are standing by the study findings. They see the need to release the results as a public health imperative, according to the source.

Chris Portier, who once held Bucher’s job, agrees that the NTP is doing the right thing. “I would be adamant that we should share the data with the public as soon as possible,” he said in an interview. The cell phone study was initiated while Portier was serving as the associate director of the NTP. He is now retired, though he continues to work as a consultant.

After extended discussions, the two federal agencies responsible for regulating exposures to cell phone radiation, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), were briefed on the results last week. It is not clear how these regulatory agencies plan to respond.

All the various agencies are now in the process of planning the release of the NTP findings. Neither Birnbaum nor Bucher responded to a request for comment on how this will be done.

Unexpected Findings

Few outsiders are yet aware of the NTP results. When Microwave News told some of those who have been tracking the study for years what had been found, all expressed surprise.

Indeed, in an interview published years ago, NTP’s Bucher said that he expected the results to show no association between RF radiation and cancer.

“Everyone expected this study to be negative,” said a senior government radiation official, who asked that his name not be used. “Assuming that the exposures were carried out in a way that heating effects can be ruled out, then those who say that such effects found are impossible are wrong,” the official said. (The study was designed to ensure that the body temperature of the exposed rats increased less than 1ºC.)

“This is a game changer, there is no question,” said David Carpenter, the director of the Institute for Health and the Environment at the University of Albany. “It confirms what we have been seeing for many years —though now we have evidence in animals as well as in humans.” Carpenter went on to add, “The NTP has the credibility of the federal government. It will be very difficult for the naysayers to deny the association any longer.” Carpenter’s institute is a collaborating center of the World Health Organization (WHO).

John Boice, the president of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), is one of the leading skeptics. “For most of us, the issue of brain cancer and cell phones is resolved. There is no risk. There is no biological mechanism and no animal study or cellular study that finds reproducible evidence of an effect,” Boice told a reporter for Medscape Medical News earlier this month.

This view is so deeply held that in the summer of 2014, the NCRP pressured the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to delete precautionary advice from a fact sheet on cell phones.

Boice was discounting last year’s report from Germany by Alex Lerchl confirming an earlier animal study showing that cell phone radiation can promote tumors in mice that were induced by toxic chemicals. The NTP experiments did not use any agent to initiate cancer cells in the animals.

With respect to mechanisms, just a couple of months ago, Frank Barnes and Ben Greenebaum, two senior members of the RF research community, announced that they could explain how low levels of RF radiation could alter the growth rates of cancer cells.

Met als belangrijkste referenties:
It May Not Be Impossible After All
Weak Magnetic Fields Can Promote Cancer


Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates



RF Cancer Promotion:
Animal Study Makes Waves

Germany’s Alex Lerchl Does a U-Turn

microwavenews.com/news-center/rf-animal-cancer-promotion .

en een waarschuwing van Dariusz Leszczynski:

Social media buzz about the US NTP study: A pessimists pre-view…

Yesterday, story published by the known-to-be-well-informed Microwave News made social media abuzz. My past experience tells me, however, to put the predictions on hold… because the spin doctors are at work. This is not any “conspiracy theory”, this is a fact of life. Huge telecom industry has certainly put lobbyists and associated scientists to work diligently to prevent possible damage to the business. This is their job, this is their business and they would be irresponsible if they did not do it. Anyone believing in the self-policing of the industry for the good of the peoples’ health is absolutely naïve, and there are numerous examples to show it.

Few important points, before jumping into premature conclusions:

The scientific results of the NTP study were not published yet, neither as a report nor as peer-reviewed articles. The results were seen only by a selected few and any opinions are, at this point, just hearsay. Therefore, it is not possible to reliably discuss the quality of the research and meaning of it in the context of the to date published animal studies and other research. This context, by the sheer numbers and by the misleading use of the “weight of evidence” term, is disadvantageous for the NTP study.

The sub-title of the Microwave News stating: “U.S. Government Expected To Advise Public of Health Risk” was being misunderstood in many social media comments. This advisory might be just a wishful thinking. Fact that the “…Discussions are currently underway among federal agencies on how to inform the public about the new findings...” does not mean that any warning by the US Government will be issued. In 2011, after the IARC classified cell phone radiation as a possible carcinogen, US CDC issued a call for a precaution that was soon after retracted… after “discussions among the federal agencies”.

So, I am not holding my breath… Spin doctors will explain soon, usefulness or uselessness of, the NTP results.

I am waiting for the publication of the data.

Het eerste rapport is nu uit, zie:
en de links daarin, onder meer naar de pdf:

biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2016/05/26/055699.full.pdf .

Een mogelijke vraag is verder in hoeverre experimenten met ratten representatief zijn voor mensen. Een antwoord staat in:
'Rats are really quite close to us, evolutionarily -- more so than even mice. That means that their brains function more like ours than their mice counterparts'

Ratten als proefdieren zijn dus meer representatief dan muizen, genetisch lijken ze meer op ons.

Verdere rapportages over dit onderwerp:
27 mei 2016
een uitstekend verhaal


27 mei 2016
Met daarin:

Why Is This New Study So Important?
Three studies Consumer Reports wrote about in 2015—one from Sweden, another from France and a third that combined data from 13 countries—suggest a connection between heavy cell phone use and gliomas, brain tumors that are often fatal. One of those studies also hinted at a link between cell phones and acoustic neuromas (tumors of the inner ear that are often non-cancerous).

But those studies had a number of limitations that cell phone companies quickly seized on: cell phone use was self-reported, for one thing. For another, the phones themselves were of varying ages, with some as old as two decades. Also, those studies looked only at a 5- to 20-year span; cancer can take much longer than that to develop in humans.

By comparison, the current study, which found the same types of tumors in rats that the earlier epidemiological research found in humans, was a controlled clinical trial; it was specifically designed to simulate the exposures of cell phone users, and all of the important parameters were tightly controlled and carefully monitored. Rats and mice were exposed to the same kinds of radiation used in cell phones, for roughly nine hours each day, spread over the course of the day.

The exposures began in utero and continued through adulthood (which for the rodents in question was about two years). Because rodents develop cancer much faster than humans, two years would be enough time to tell us about longer-term cancer risks.

What Are Some Possible Impacts of the Study?
The results of this large, long-term study could dramatically shift the national debate over cell phone safety. The NTP’s website says that the results may be used by the Food and Drug Administration and the FTC in determining how best to protect consumers from the potential harms of radiation that comes from cell phones.

The CDC might also consider reinstating the cautions it pulled from its web site. (We’ve reached out to the agency for comment, and will update our story once we hear back from them).

Likewise, the cell phone industry may have to alter its stance. The wireless association trade group CTIA has maintained that cell phones are completely safe, and has fought to block San Francisco from passing laws that would require electronics retailers to notify consumers about the proper handling of cell phones.

En nog nieuwe aandacht voor deze studie

In Scientific American, een toonaangevend tijdschrift:

Major Cell Phone Radiation Study Reignites Cancer Questions
Exposure to radio-frequency radiation linked to tumor formation in rats
27 mei 2016






Are More People Getting Brain Tumors?
GBMs, the Most Virulent Type, Are Rising




en ook de eerste tegenzet, met kritisch commentaar, van de telecom industrie misschien?:
www.vox.com/2016/5/27/11797924/cellphones-cancer-bad-reporting .
met als titel:
Seriously, stop with the irresponsible reporting on cellphones and cancer


It didn't prove cellphones are deadly, but maybe take some precautions.

BREAKING: Massive government study concludes cell phone radiation causes brain cancer

En de eerste publicatie in een Nederlandse krant:
Onderzoekers vinden verband mobiel bellen en kanker
28 mei 2016

Een groot onderzoek van de National Toxicology Program, een gerenommeerd Amerikaans onderzoeksinstituut, heeft een verband gevonden tussen de straling van mobiele telefoons en kanker bij ratten. Meer dan 2.500 ratten werden twee jaar lang, elke dag negen uur aan de straling blootgesteld.

Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat voornamelijk mannelijke ratten door de straling een grotere kans hadden om kanker te krijgen. Dat zou wel eens olie op het vuur kunnen gooien op een langlopend debat, schrijft Consumer Reports.

Al sinds de intrede van de mobiele telefoon wordt er regelmatig gespeculeerd over een verband tussen mobiel bellen en kanker. Veel wetenschappers vonden dat er nog niet genoeg bewijs was om een verband aan te tonen.

Lees ook: Dít is de app die huidkanker helpt signaleren

Zo waren er in 2015 drie studies waaruit ook bleek dat mensen die veel mobiel belden, sneller een hersentumor krijgen. Maar die onderzoeken kregen flinke kritiek te verduren: de proefpersonen moesten zelf aangeven hoe vaak ze hun telefoon gebruikten, wat niet altijd even betrouwbaar is. De telefoons waren daarnaast verouderd.

Bij het onderzoek met de ratten is echter precies gemeten hoe lang de ratten aan de straling werden blootgesteld. De straling was daarnaast ook even hoog als die in huidige telefoons wordt gebruikt. De ratten werden bovendien steeds voor korte periodes aan de straling onderworpen, voor in totaal negen uur per dag. Dat begon al in de baarmoeder, en duurde tot de ratten volwassen waren.

Omdat kankercellen zich veel sneller ontwikkelen bij ratten, zou twee jaar lang genoeg moeten zijn om betrouwbare resultaten te krijgen.

Verder aandacht voor dit onderzoek in onder meer:
gfcnieuws.org/nieuw-onderzoek-concludeert-mobieltje-geeft-kanker/ .

Verder relevant commentaar van 'Electromagnetic Radiation Safety':
Update on National Toxicology Program Study

Many major national media outlets participated in the teleconference conducted by the National Toxicology Program today. The journalists posed many questions about the study, and NTP staff did their best to answer them.

Toward the end of the call I asked whether the following observation is appropriate:

The report indicates that there was a ''low incidence'' of tumors in the cellphone-exposed groups. However, the report did not assess the overall risk of tumors for both types of tumors studied. By my calculation, thirty of 540 (5.5%), or one in 18 male rats exposed to cell phone radiation developed cancer. In addition, 16 pre-cancerous hyperplasias were diagnosed. Thus, 46 of 540, or one in 12 male rats exposed to cell phone radiation developed cancer or a pre-cancerous lesion. No cancers were found in 90 male rats in the unexposed control group.

NTP staff seemed to think my calculations were accurate, but admitted that they had not performed this calculation.

Many reporters questioned the study's implications for cell phone users. In response, staff stated that other federal agencies needed to determine the policy implications. After the call, I calculated the overall risk for the male rats in the group exposed to the lowest intensity of cell phone radiation (i.e., 1.5 watts/kilogram or W/kg). Twelve of 180, or one in 15 male rats in this group developed cancer or a pre-cancerous lesion. This latter finding has policy implications as the FCC's current cell phone regulations allow cell phones to emit up to 1.6 W/kg at the head or near the body (partial body SAR).

See the updated post on my EMR Safety website for more details:
www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html ,
met daarin een tweede belangrijke referentie:
For references to the research that found increased risk of malignant and nonmalignant tumors among long-term cell phone users see bit.ly/WSJsaferemr. .

Ook DNA schade gevonden bij de bestraalde ratten:
www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/questions-abound-after-study-links-tumors-cellphone-radiation .

Informatieve tabel met pro's en con's in:
www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html .

Een belangrijke toevoeging met veel extra links:
News Media Nix NTP Phone Cancer Study; “Don’t Believe the Hype”
31 mei 2016

Are More People Getting Brain Tumors?
GBMs, the Most Virulent Type, Are Rising

En verder:
31 mei 2016

3 juni 2016

National Toxicology Program: Not the First Government Study to Find Wireless Radiation Can Cause Cancer in Lab Rats

The National Toxicology Program's (NTP) recent study is not the first randomized controlled trial to find that exposure to non-thermal levels of microwave radiation can cause cancer in male rats.

A U.S. Air Force study conducted from 1980 to 1982 which was documented in a series of nine technical reports and later published in the peer-reviewed journal, Bioelectromagnetics, found that 18% of 100 male rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation for two years developed cancer as compared to only 5% of 100 rats in the sham-exposed control group. The relative risk of developing cancer in the wireless radiation exposure group was 4.46 (p = .005).

''A statistically significant increase of primary malignancies in exposed rats vs. incidence in controls is a provocative finding, but the biological significance of this effect in the absence of truncated longevity is conjectural. The positive findings need independent experimental evaluation.'' (Chou et al., 1992).

The objective of this 5-year, $5 million study was to create a ''generalized level of radiation that would provide whole-body exposure based on the maximum of permissible absorption (ANSI C95.1- 1982, 1983; IEEE C95.1-1991,1992) at the resonant frequency in human beings (0.4 W/kg), as scaled to the proportions of the experimental animal of choice.'' The microwaves were pulsed and square-wave modulated because prior research had found that extremely low frequency modulation of microwave radiation altered the movement of calcium ions in chicken and cat brains (Adey, 1981).

Differences between 1992 Chou study and 2016 NTP study

The Chou study exposed experimental animals to 2450 MHz ''so each rat would have approximately the same size-to-wavelength ratio as a human being exposed at 450 MHz of microwave radiation;'' whereas the NTP study exposed rats to 900 MHz microwave radiation that simulated second-generation (2G) cell phone radiation. The rats' average exposure in the Chou study was about 4-10 times lower than in the NTP study (0.15 W/kg to 0.4 W/kg versus 1.5 W/kg to 6.0 W/kg).

Chou and his colleagues were trying to simulate the effects of radar on people. The frequency tested is close to one of the frequencies currently in use for Wi-Fi, 2400 MHz.

Although the NTP study found increased malignant tumor risk in different organs than the Air Force study, the differences are likely attributable to the different forms of microwave radiation tested.

Three decades have passed since this Air Force study of wireless radiation was conducted. The FDA called for the NTP to study the effects of radiation from wireless devices 17 years ago. Now the results from the $25 million NTP study suggest that cellphone radiation can also cause cancer in laboratory rats.

When will the federal government fund the research needed to determine the types and amounts of exposure to cellphone and other wireless radiation that are safe?


Chou CK, Guy AW, Kunz LL, Johnson RB, Crowley JJ, Krupp JH. Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 1992;13(6):469-96.


Our goal was to investigate effects of long-term exposure to pulsed microwave radiation. The major emphasis was to expose a large sample of experimental animals throughout their lifetimes and to monitor them for effects on general health and longevity.

An exposure facility was developed that enabled 200 rats to be maintained under specific-pathogen-free (SPF) conditions while housed individually in circularly-polarized waveguides. The exposure facility consisted of two rooms, each containing 50 active waveguides and 50 waveguides for sham (control) exposures. The experimental rats were exposed to 2,450-MHz pulsed microwaves at 800 pps with a 10-microseconds pulse width. The pulsed microwaves were square-wave modulated at 8-Hz. Whole body calorimetry, thermographic analysis, and power-meter analysis indicated that microwaves delivered at 0.144 W to each exposure waveguide resulted in an average specific absorption rate (SAR) that ranged from 0.4 W/kg for a 200-g rat to 0.15 W/kg for an 800-g rat. Two hundred male, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned in equal numbers to radiation-exposure and sham-exposure conditions. Exposure began at 8 weeks of age and continued daily, 21.5 h/day, for 25 months. Animals were bled at regular intervals and blood samples were analyzed for serum chemistries, hematological values, protein electrophoretic patterns, thyroxine, and plasma corticosterone levels. In addition to daily measures of body mass, food and water consumption by all animals, O2 consumption and CO2 production were periodically measured in a sub-sample (N = 18) of each group. Activity was assessed in an open-field apparatus at regular intervals throughout the study.

After 13 months, 10 rats from each group were euthanatized to test for immunological competence and to permit whole-body analysis, as well as gross and histopathological examinations. At the end of 25 months, the survivors (11 sham-exposed and 12 radiation-exposed rats) were euthanatized for similar analyses. The other 157 animals were examined histopathologically when they died spontaneously or were terminated in extremis.

Statistical analyses by parametric and non-parametric tests of 155 parameters were negative overall for effects on general health, longevity, cause of death, or lesions associated with aging and benign neoplasia. Positive findings of effects on corticosterone level and immune system at 13 months exposure were not confirmed in a follow-up study of 20 exposed and 20 control rats. Differences in 0, consumption and C0,production were found in young rats. A statistically significant increase of primary malignancies in exposed rats vs. incidence in controls is a provocative finding, but the biological significance of this effect in the absence of truncated longevity is conjectural. The positive findings need independent experimental evaluation. Overall, the results indicate that there were no definitive biological effects in rats chronically exposed to RF radiation at 2,450 MHz.

The paper can be downloaded from the FCC website at:

Labels: Air Force, cancer, cellphone radiation, Chou, Guy study, malignant tumor, microwave radiation, National Toxicology Program, NTP, rats, Wi-Fi
Older Post

pdf/Media%20Coverage%202016%20NTP%20study.pdf .
Media Coverage 2016 NTP study.

Een PP presentatie van het NTI programma en onderzoek:
ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/NTP-Rodent-Study-on-Cell-Phones.pdf .

31 mei 2016
News Media Nix NTP Phone Cancer Study; “Don’t Believe the Hype”
Are More People Getting Brain Tumors?
GBMs, the Most Virulent Type, Are Rising

Frequently Asked Questions About The U.S. National Toxicology Program Radiofrequency Rodent Carcinogenicity Research Study

Setting the Record Straight on NTP Cell Phone Cancer Study
10 juni 2016

US government’s premiere test program finds cancer risk from cell phone radiation: a game-changing global wake-up call
By Devra Davis June 19th 2016
Have you heard that cell phones cause cancer, then they don’t, then they do? Confused enough yet? Let me break it down for you. Contrary to some claims, the new US government study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) is hardly a shot in the dark or a one-off event. With this largest best-conducted animal study, we now have three different studies within the past six years where animals develop some of the same cancers from cell phone radiation as people.

www.wsj.com/articles/debate-renews-over-health-risks-from-cellphone-use-1467829289 .
6 juli 2016
A Wall Street Journal contribution to the discussion.

4 aug. 2016

Zie ook de video:

microwavenews.com/news-center/ntp-comet-assay .

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