Dementia: Neurological deaths of american adults by sex compared with 20 western countries 1989-2010
woensdag, 16 maart 2016 - Categorie: Artikelen
23 juli 2015
Neurological deaths (dementia, Alzheimer) of American adults (55–74) and the over 75's by sex compared with 20 Western countries 1989–2010: Cause for concern. Surg Neurol Int 23-Jul-2015;6:123
Pritchard C, Rosenorn-Lanng E
Bournemouth University, Bournemouth BH1 3 LT, UK
Background: Have USA total neurological deaths (TNDs) of adults (55-74) and the over 75's risen more than in twenty Western Countries?
Methods: World Health Organization TND data are compared with control mortalities cancer mortality rates (CMRs) and circulatory disease deaths (CDDs) between 1989-1991 and 2008-2010 and odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals calculated.
Results: Neurological Deaths -- Twenty country (TC) average 55-74 male rates per million (pm) rose 2% to 503 pm, USA increased by 82% to 627 pm. TC average females rose 1% to 390 pm, USA rising 48% to 560 pm. TC average over 75's male and female increased 117% and 143%; USA rising 368% and 663%, significantly more than 16 countries. Cancer mortality -- Average 55-74 male and female fell 20% and 12%, USA down 36% and 18%. TC average over 75's male and female fell 13% and 15%, the USA 29% and 2%. Circulatory deaths -- TC average 55-74 rates fell 60% and 46% the USA down 54% and 53%. Over 75's average down 46% and 39%, USA falling 40% and 33%. ORs for rose substantially in every country. TC average 75's ORs for CMR: TND male and females were 1:2.83 and 1:3.04 but the USA 1:5.18 and 1:6.50. The ORs for CDD: TND male and females TC average was 1:3.42 and 1:3.62 but the USA 1:6.13 and 1:9.89.
Conclusions: Every country's neurological deaths rose relative to the controls, especially in the USA, which is a cause for concern and suggests possible environmental influences.
Keywords: Age, gender, international comparison, neurological deaths
Neurological disease has increased in recent years throughout the developed world. 1 2 3 4 8 12 15 17 19 21 26 28 31 33 35 36 37 38 41 44 Neurological deaths are reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) in two global categories, Alzheimer and other dementias, and nervous disease deaths 47 50 which enables us to calculate a total neurological death (TND) rate per million (pm) of population. Thus, TND include such disparate conditions as Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease (MND), hereditary neuromuscular conditions, prion disorders, degenerative diseases, including Creutzfeldt Jacob's disease (CJD), and new variant CJD 50 though the incidence of the later appears to have relatively stabilized, returning close to pre-2000 levels. 9 30 41
Earlier research found that dementia morbidity was occurring earlier and had disproportionately increased in some Western countries in people aged 45–74 years, with relatively larger increases in women 26 38 40 as women's TND rates had risen relatively more than male rates in every country. As Western women's lifestyles have changed more than men's this suggests possible interactive environmental contributions. 6 11 22 32 38 41 44 This view is supported by studies of neurological mortality that found population density was a surrogate marker for environmental exposure 13 46 and a similar link has been found in relation to incidence of cancer, 39 with substantial increases in two specific neurological conditions, MND, 1 6 8 12 19 23 and “early-onset dementias.” 29 33 34 36 38 41 49
However, as neurological diseases are classically “diseases of the elderly,” it has been argued that the Gompertzian theory on longevity was operating, namely people are now living longer to develop diseases that they would not have lived long enough to have acquired in previous times. 7 14 42 However, while this process might partially account for the some of the rises, the disproportionate rises in the incidence over a relatively short time suggest other factors, both in respect to the cancer and neurological morbidity. 1 7 21 35 38 41 49 While a number of researchers have acknowledged that the longevity Gompertzian effect may be a factor, they argued that environmental factors probably played a larger part. 24 25 42 45 Furthermore, increases in neurological morbidity in the less economically developed countries, would not appear to be mainly attributable to the Gompertzian explanation. 15 24 25 31 38 41 42 44 45
Conversely, changes or improvements in diagnosis have been thought to be a possible factor, 18 23 but other reviews suggest this is not a major issue, as current brain imagining and better biomarkers allows diagnosis to be more accurate and, therefore, the figures are essentially more reliable, 23 while some USA studies showed that dementia deaths are under-reported. 21 26 33 36
Previous work that highlighted earlier dementia deaths, 38 41 spanned a 30 years period and two International Classification of Diseases (ICDs) editions, whereas this study covers only 20 years and one ICD edition. 50 This limits the likelihood of any changes being related to differences in reporting and also reduces the Gompertzian explanation.
Voor het volledige artikel zie de link bovenaan.
In de conclusie bovenaan staat:
'Every country's neurological deaths rose relative to the controls, especially in the USA, which is a cause for concern and suggests possible environmental influences.'
De vraag is in hoeverre elektromagnetische velden (EMV) van draadloze communicatie en van laag-frequent (LF) bronnen bijdragen aan de sterke toename van het aantal 'neurological deaths'.
Tot slot nog de 'conclusions' en 'implications' aan het eind van het artikel:
The Gompertzian explanation appears limited, not least because it does not explain the USA position, but we avoid the temptation to speculate but point toward a number of studies indicating possible epigenetic factors influencing neurological morbidity, 3 4 5 15 22 24 25 26 32 36 44 suggesting that possible nongenetic influences on gene expression, may be entertained. 4 5 6 10 12 13 16 20 32 41
The nature of any environmental factors are uncertain but there have been major environmental changes; including increased population, economic activity, substantial rises in road and air travel; increased home technology involving background electromagnetic fields (mobile phones, microwave ovens, computers), which are unique to these later years and these possible environmental factors cannot be ignored, especially as they probably interact. 6 10 27 28 33 This list of possible features might be described as “modern living” and the USA is the epitome of “modern living.”
Elektromagnetische velden worden hierin inderdaad genoemd.
The recognition that increased longevity caries new problems is well accepted, however, the extent of the disproportionate increase in neurological morbidity in comparison with other diseases of the elderly, puts further pressure on already stretched health and social care services but may not yet be fully recognized in regard to neurology. The substantial earlier onset of neurological disorders will have profound psychosocial and economic implications for patients, families, and front-line services that must add to the burden of disease within society, with inevitable psycho-socioeconomic impact upon all involved. 3 11 21 29 33 36 48 There is growing concern about the “burden of disease of older people”, with improvements in longevity. 37 A new major international study confirmed that it is the cardiovascular and cancer diseases (45%) that are greatest burden of diseases, and they report only 6.6% related to neurological disorders. 37 However, in a systematic international review of the “cost-of-illness” related to dementia in a number of countries, it showed the new extent of the considerable cost drivers linked to dementia, impacting upon patient and families, with new pressures upon healthcare systems. 45 With the above result indicating that neurological morbidity in continuing to rise disproportionately, these costs for family and society are likely to increase. A stark example of this is seen in a recently created British charity “Young Dementia UK,” whose clients are mainly people in their late 40's and early 50's, which reflect the human cost of earlier studies showing that the dementia are starting earlier. 38 48
Crucially therefore, relative to other specialties, the present configuration of services may require re-organization, especially for specialist neurological services and for community psychosocial provision, to meet the challenge. While increases in Alzheimer disease is recognized in many Western countries, there have also been rises in other neurological diseases, 1 2 4 12 29 33 34 35 38 41 48 that need to be brought to national attention. Indeed, there are lessons to be drawn from reduced cancer mortality as every government has made major additional investments in cancer services to respond to wider public concern, 5 which led to major research and treatment resources. This level of commitment, investment, and research needs to be matched in the field of neurology to meet the new challenge, especially in the USA, as with their disproportionate increases in neurological morbidity and mortality, this must be a major cause for concern.
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Later toegevoegd (april 2016), overgenomen uit: emfrefugee.blogspot.nl/
Out of 21 countries, the US is now ranked #2 highest in neurological disease death in 2010 when 20 years prior it used to rank #11 for the age>75 group and #17 for the age 55-74 group. In the age>75 group, the US had the highest rate of increase at 412%, and in the age 55-74 group, US had the second highest rate of increase at 64%. This is serious - see the email attached below for plots of data and the newspaper article that appeared in the Washington Post. This was data from 6 years ago, and it's likely to be worse now. Huge increases like these do not happen without reason. Give this some thought, and please read the short paragraphs that follow.
An explanation for the increase in dementia can be found from a paper published in March 2012 by Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy, former advisor to the European Space Agency and retired lecturer in biology from Imperial College, one of the top 3 universities in the UK, entitled The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields, Problems and Solutions. He spent many years studying calcium metabolism in living cells and how cells, tissues, and organisms are affected by electromagnetic fields. The pulsed frequencies in the range 6-600Hz causes the most damage to cell membranes (calcium ions which are the glue that holds cell membranes together are vibrated loose from the membranes in this frequency range, particularly around 16 Hz, tearing them). This also happens to be the frequency range used by the pulsed signals in all digital cellular communications. ''The Industry clearly did not do its homework before letting these technologies loose on the general public and this omission may already have cost many lives.'' He also predicted that early onset dementia may be on the rise because of our increased exposure to wireless radiation. It is an excellent paper and covers all effects of wireless radiation caused by cell membrane damage, including rashes, allergies and asthma, autoimmune disease, headaches and other neurological effects, anxiety, cardiovascular effects, autism, and reproductive effects. (The paper is attached below)
Below are excerpts
It had been known since the work of Bawin et al. (1975) that weak electromagnetic fields could remove calcium ions from the surfaces of brain cells...by removing structurally-important calcium ions from cell membranes, which then made them leak. We now know that membrane leakage of this kind can explain most of the biological effects of both conditioned water and of direct exposure to electromagnetic fields.
p. 9 Calcium leakage and brain function
Normal brain function depends on the orderly transmission of signals through a mass of about 100 billion neurons.Neurons are typically highly branched nerve cells. They usually have one long branch (the axon), which carries electrical signals as action potentials (nerve impulses) to or from other parts of the body or between relatively distant parts of the brain (a nerve contains many axons bundled together). The shorter branches communicate with other neurons where their ends are adjacent at synapses. They transmit information across the synapses using a range of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals secreted by one neuron and detected by the other.
Calcium ions play an essential role in brain function because a small amount of calcium must enter the cytosol of the neuron before it can release its neurotransmitters (Alberts et al. 2002). Electromagnetically-induced membrane leakage would increase the background level of calcium in the neurons so that they release their neurotransmitters sooner. This improves our reaction time to simple stimuli but it can also trigger the spontaneous release of neurotransmitters to send spurious signals that have no right to be there, which makes the brain hyperactive and less able to concentrate.
p. 14 Effect on Tight Junction Barriers
Tight junction barriers are layers of cells where the gaps between them are sealed by tight-junctions to prevent materials leaking around their sides. They protect all of our body surfaces from the entry of unwanted materials and often protect one part of the body from being unduly influenced by the others. For example, the blood-brain barrier prevents toxins entering the brain from the bloodstream. Normally, these barriers are closed but they are programmed to open if calcium ions enter their cells. This was demonstrated by Kan and Coleman (1988) who showed that the calcium ionophore A23187 (an antibiotic that kills bacteria and fungi by letting calcium ions leak into their cells) opened tight junction barriers in the liver. The electromagnetic opening of the blood-liver barrier could be a contributory factor to the current outbreak of liver disease in the UK among the under forties (the cell phone generation), which is at present being blamed on alcohol abuse. Since all tight junction barriers have basically the same design, unscheduled calcium entry resulting from electromagnetic exposure is likely to open all of them in much the same way. The opening of our tight junction barriers by electromagnetic fields can account for many modern illnesses, ranging from asthma to multiple allergies and Alzheimer’s disease.
p. 14 The blood-brain barrier and early dementia
The blood-brain barrier normally prevents possibly toxic large molecules from the bloodstream entering the brain. The radiation from cell phones, even at one hundredth of the permitted SAR value, can open the blood brain barrier in rats so that protein molecules as large as albumin could enter their brains (Persson et al. 1997). Later experiments by Salford et al. (2003) showed that this was associated with the death of neurons. We would not expect an immediate effect because the brain has spare capacity, but prolonged or repeated exposure to cell phone or similar radiation would be expected to cause a progressive loss of functional neurons and result in early dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The extreme sensitivity of the blood-brain barrier to the radiation could mean that even sitting close to someone using a cell phone could affect you too. It may not be too surprising to find that early onset Alzheimer’s disease is now on the increase in modern society.
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