WiFi niet goed voor ratten, voor mensen dan wel? 2de verhhal over verstoring van slaap bij ratten
woensdag, 10 april 2013 - Categorie: Artikelen
1ste Bron: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=22465825 .
10 april 2013
J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Apr;9(2):223-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2012.02.015. Epub 2012 Mar 30.
Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.
Atasoy HI, Gunal MY, Atasoy P, Elgun S, Bugdayci G.
Departments of Pediatrics, Abant Izzet Baysal University School of Medicine, Bolu 14280, Turkey. Electronic address: email@example.com.
To investigate effects on rat testes of radiofrequency radiation emitted from indoor Wi-Fi Internet access devices using 802.11.g wireless standards.
Ten Wistar albino male rats were divided into experimental and control groups, with five rats per group. Standard wireless gateways communicating at 2.437 GHz were used as radiofrequency wave sources. The experimental group was exposed to radiofrequency energy for 24 h a day for 20 weeks. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study. Intracardiac blood was sampled for serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. Testes were removed and examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Testis tissues were analyzed for malondialdehyde levels and prooxidant-antioxidant enzyme activities.
We observed significant increases in serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and 8-hydroxyguanosine staining in the testes of the experimental group indicating DNA damage due to exposure (p < 0.05). We also found decreased levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the experimental group, which may have been due to radiofrequency effects on enzyme activity (p < 0.05).
These findings raise questions about the safety of radiofrequency exposure from Wi-Fi Internet access devices for growing organisms of reproductive age, with a potential effect on both fertility and the integrity of germ cells.
Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 22465825 PubMed - in process
Voor een tweede onderzoek naar vertoring van slaap bij ratten zie:
Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats ☆
Haitham S. Mohammeda, , , Heba M. Fahmya, Nasr M. Radwanb, Anwar A. Elsayeda
a Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
b Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2012.05.005, How to Cite or Link Using DOI
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In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.
Electromagnetic radiation; Electroencephalogram; Slow wave sleep; Rapid eye movement sleep
The widespread of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) sources in domestic use has increased over the last decades, especially in the communication field, and public concern has been raised to quantify the health hazard problems that may occur due to the exposure to such type of non-ionizing radiation.
Tissue heating is the most widely accepted mechanism of microwave radiation with biological systems. These effects can result from elevations of tissue temperature induced by radiofrequency (RF) energy deposited or absorbed in biological systems through local, partial-body or whole-body exposures. However, a large bulk of literature have evidenced that several biological effects of RF can be formed without tissue heating which are known as non-thermal biological effects of radiation 1.
EEG considered to be a sensitive tool to asses quantify and classify sleep stages as well as study their changes due to radiation interaction with the brain. In human and most animals, EEG appears as low-amplitude fast waves during awake state, high-amplitude slow waves during SWS and low amplitude fast waves during REM sleep.
It has also been repeatedly reported that exposure to low-level microwaves produces alterations in the resting or sleep EEG signal and brain physiology 2, 3 and 4. It has been demonstrated that exposure to pulse-modulated microwaves alters not only the EEG but also regional cerebral blood flow 5 and 6. Furthermore, it has been reported that modulation is crucial for radiofrequency electromagnetic field-induced alterations in brain physiology 6.
Sleep function is hypothesized to be the reprocessing and consolidation of memory traces 7 and 8. There is also some recent evidence suggesting that sleep may help to protect declarative memories from subsequent associative interferences 9.
Sleep is one of the biological phenomena that can be affected by RF radiation exposure. Mann and Roschke 10 reported reduction in latency to sleep onset and the percentage of REM sleep due to exposure to GSM-like signals. Loughran et al. 11 reported a decrease in REM sleep latency after 30 min of 894.6 MHz radiation exposure.
In the present study, several aims have been addressed. First, the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic radiation was studied by the application of low-level radiation (0.025 mW/cm2). Second, the differences in the effect of the continuous and the modulated wave’s electromagnetic radiation were checked out by application of these two types of radiation. The modulation frequencies were selected to be within the physiological range of the brain’s EEG signals to assess the interaction of theses similar frequencies. Finally, the chronic exposure of radiation rather than the acute exposure was used to investigate the cumulative nature of radiation effects on the biological system.
Material and methods
The experimental animals used in the present study were adult male Wistar albino rats, weighing 175–250 g. The animals were obtained from the animal house of the National Research Center, Egypt. They were maintained on stock diet and kept under fixed conditions of housing and handling. They were under controlled light-dark cycle (on at 7 a.m. and off at 7 p.m.) and temperature conditions (25 ±2 °C). All experiments were carried out in accordance with the research protocols established by the Animal Care Committee of the National Research Center, Egypt which followed the recommendations of the National Institutes of Health Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).
A total of 40 rats were divided into four groups. Three groups were irradiated with electromagnetic radiation either 900 MHz continuous wave or frequency-modulated (8 and 16 Hz) wave on a daily basis, (1 h per day) for 1 month. The fourth group served as a control group with the same experimental conditions except radiation exposure.
The exposure setup
The radiofrequency (RF) generator (Aeroflex company, Model: 2025, UK) connected to a power amplifier (Stealth Microwave, Model: SM 0520-36, SSB Technologies, Inc., NJ, USA) was used to generate the electromagnetic radiation. The amplifier, in turn, was connected to a circular monopole antenna designed so that the reflection coefficient at its input should not more than −12 dBm and fed by a coaxial line through a Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic radiation power density was measured with a field meter (Narda, EMR200, frequency from 0 to 4 GHz, Germany).
The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in the rat head was determined by using the finite different time domain (FDTD) method, with the aid of the XFDTD Bio-pro software (version: 18.104.22.168, NY, USA). Geometric/electric model was constructed for the animal’s head from the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson 12. An ellipsoid model with the internal anatomic layers was used. The standard dielectric properties 13 were assigned to each layer. The animal head model was subjected to RFR with the same power density as that measured by the field meter through the experimental exposure process. The FDTD algorithm was then applied to calculate the electric field distribution everywhere inside the head model. The SAR was calculated at the desired points as σDED2/2ρ, where E is the electric field peak value at the point (V/m), σ is the conductivity of the tissue at this point (S/m) and ρ is the density of the tissue (Kg/m3). The calculated spatial peak SAR averaged over 1 g was found to be 0.245 W/kg.
As shown in Fig. 2, rats were housed in a circular plastic tray (50 cm diameter) which is divided into equal sectors to ensure that all rats were equally exposed to radiation. The antenna emitting the electromagnetic radiation was fixed in the center of the tray. To avoid stress, an aperture (1.5 cm in diameter) was made in the upper lid of each sector tip toward the antenna for animal breathing and this design make the animals freely direct their heads toward the radiation antenna.
EEG recording and analysis
Under Na-pentobarbital anesthesia (40 g/kg of animal), animals were positioned in the stereotaxic device (David Kopf instruments, Tujunga, California, USA) and implanted with three epidural stainless steel electrodes, of 1 mm diameter, Electrodes were implanted over the frontal cortex at 3.9 mm anterior to the Bregma and 2 mm lateral (right) to the midline, the other electrode was implanted at 6.4 mm posterior to the Bregma and 4 mm lateral (right) to the midline, whereas, the third electrode (reference electrode) was implanted over the cerebellum 1 mm posterior to Lambda, on the extension of the midline 12. The three electrodes were connected to a multipin connector base, and the entire assembly was fixed to the skull and isolated with dental cement (zinc polycarboxylate non-irritating dental cement, purchased from Spofa-Dental-Praha, Czech Republic).
During EEG recordings, rats were housed in a sound attenuated, aerated and electrically shielded cage (25 × 25 × 30 cm). They were left 30 min prior to recording for acclimatization to the laboratory environment. EEG recordings were performed at fixed time of the day under the following conditions; 50 Hz notch filter and sampling rate of 200 sample/s.
REM sleep was characterized by low-voltage (desynchronized) EEG activity and continuous high theta power (4–8 Hz) 14 and 15. SWS was characterized by high-voltage (synchronized) EEG activity and high delta power (1–4 Hz). Using both the time and frequency domains criteria, the two different sleep states were distinguished over 1 h of EEG recording session.
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was used to convert data from the time domain to the frequency domain to obtain power spectra for each of the SWS and REM sleep samples. The obtained power spectrum of each sample was segmented into five frequency bands, delta (1–4 Hz); theta (4.1–8 Hz); alpha (8.1–13 Hz); beta-1 (13.1–18 Hz); beta-2 (18.1–30 Hz). The band power (BP), which is the integration of the power in certain EEG band, for SWS and REMS states were calculated, then an average was estimated over 1 h of EEG session. For comparison purpose and to overcome the inter-individual variations, a normalization of band power was achieved by dividing value of the individual band power by the total power of all bands for each animal.
The latency of REM sleep, which is the period of time between the onset of sleep and the appearance of the first REM, was measured. Statistical analysis between control and irradiated animals were determined by using student’s t-test.
Identification of SWS and REM sleep patterns
The base line recording of rat’s EEG during SWS and REM sleep is illustrated in Fig. 1A and B, respectively. As shown in Fig. 1A, the pattern of the EEG recorded during SWS is generally characterized by high amplitude and slow frequency in contrast to the pattern of EEG recorded during REM sleep which is characterized by lower amplitude and higher frequency as shown in Fig. 1B. On the basis of amplitude and frequency analysis the two types of sleep (SWS and REM) were identified.
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