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LTE (4G) en invloed op hersenactiviteit
4 sept. 2013
The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute
electromagnetic fields exposure
Bin Lv (a,b), Zhiye Chen (c), Tongning Wua, Qing Shao (a), Duo Yan (b), Lin Mac (c), Ke Lub (b), Yi Xie (a)
(a) China Academy of Telecommunication Research of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Beijing, China
(b) University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
(c) Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China
Accepted 20 July 2013
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
Long Term Evolution
Resting state fMRI
Amplitude of low frequency fluctuation
h i g h l i g h t s
- The resting state fMRI was applied to investigate the Long Term Evolution (LTE) radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure influence on spontaneous brain activity.
- A controlled LTE RF-EMF exposure environment was designed, and the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) approaches were selected to analyze the resting state fMRI signals.
- We found the spontaneous low frequency oscillations in brain were altered by the acute LTE RF-EMFexposure.
Objective: The motivation of this study is to evaluate the possible alteration of regional resting state brain activity induced by the acute radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure (30 min) of Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal.
Methods: We designed a controllable near-field LTE RF-EMF exposure environment. Eighteen subjects participated in a double-blind, crossover, randomized and counterbalanced experiment including two sessions (real and sham exposure). The radiation source was close to the right ear. Then the resting state fMRI signals of human brain were collected before and after the exposure in both sessions. We measured the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to characterize the spontaneous brain activity.
Results: We found the decreased ALFF value around in left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule after the real exposure. And the decreased fALFF value was also detected in right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule.
Conclusions: The study provided the evidences that 30 min LTE RF-EMF exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in some brain regions.
Significance: With resting state fMRI, we found the alteration of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations induced by the acute LTE RF-EMF exposure.
2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Een zeer belangrijk artikel waaruit de directe invloed van LTE (4G) op hersenactiviteiten blijkt. Vooral de combinatie van eerst blootstelling (dubbelblind) aan LTE en daarna een MRI scan om de gevolgen in kaart te brengen is nieuw en geeft veel informatie
Bron 2 voor de geïllustreerde samenvatting:
LTE Cell Phone Radiation Affects Brain Activity in Cell Phone Users
New peer-reviewed research finds that 30 minutes' exposure to LTE cellphone radiation affects brain activity on both sides of the brain.
Sep. 23, 2013 - BERKELEY, Calif. -- The first study on the short-term effects of Long Term Evolution (LTE), the fourth generation cell phone technology, has been published online in the peer-reviewed journal, Clinical Neurophysiology. (1)
In a controlled experiment, researchers exposed the right ear of 18 participants to LTE cellphone radiation for 30 minutes. The source of the radiation was 1 centimeter from the ear, and the absorbed amount of radiation in the brain was well within international (ICNIRP) cell phone legal limits. The researchers employed a double-blind, crossover, randomized and counter-balanced design to eliminate any possible study biases.
The resting state brain activity of each participant was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at two times -- after exposure to LTE microwave radiation, and after a sham exposure.
The results demonstrated that LTE exposure affected brain neural activity not only in the closer brain region but also in the remote region, including the left hemisphere of the brain. The study helps explain the underlying neural mechanism for the remote effects of microwave radiation in the brain.
In 2011, Dr. Nora Volkow, Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, published a similar study in the Journal of the American Medical Association that received worldwide news coverage. Dr. Volkow reported that a 50 minute exposure to CDMA, a second generation cell phone technology, increased brain activity in the region of the brain closest to the cell phone. (2)
The current study establishes that short-term exposure to LTE microwave radiation affects the users' brain activity. Although LTE is too new for the long-term health consequences to have been studied, we have considerable evidence that long-term cell phone use is associated with various health risks including increased risk of head and neck cancers, sperm damage, and reproductive health consequences for offspring (i.e., ADHD).
Cell phone users, especially pregnant women and children, should limit their cell phone use. Moreover, cell phone users should not keep their phones near their head, breasts or reproductive organs when using the phone or whenever the phone is turned on unless it is in airplane mode.
For more information about the health effects of cell phone radiation see my Electromagnetic Radiation Safety Web site at www.saferemr.com/.
Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D.
School of Public Health Health
University of California, Berkeley
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