how to get rid of moles
Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents
Environ Int. 2016 Dec 27. pii: S0160-4120(16)30527-X. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.12.008. (Epub ahead of print)
Roser K1, Schoeni A1, Struchen B1, Zahner M2, Eeftens M1, Fröhlich J2, Röösli M3.
1 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel, Switzerland.
2 Institute for Electromagnetic Fields, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zürich), Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland; Fields at Work GmbH, Sonneggstrasse 60, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland.
3 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).
The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body.
Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents.
Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose.
RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A relevant comment:
Penelope Landis: This may have been done before wifi devices were in full use at school. it is 3 years later. In these childrens schools were wifi devices part of the curriculum?
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