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Kanker: Aantal kankergevallen fors toegenomen
Bron 1: www.metronieuws.nl/nieuws/extra/2016/12/aantal-kankergevallen-nam-afgelopen-jaren-fors-toe
5 dec. 2016
In de afgelopen jaren hebben steeds meer mensen kanker gekregen. Het aantal gevallen van de ziekte steeg wereldwijd met 33 procent.
Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van JAMA Oncology, een wetenschappelijk tijdschrift over kanker. In totaal leden vorig jaar zo’n 17,5 miljoen mensen aan kanker. Ongeveer 8,7 miljoen mensen stierven aan de ziekte. De stijging van het aantal kankergevallen tussen 2005 en 2015 wijten de onderzoekers onder andere aan de vergrijzing en de toeneming van de wereldbevolking.
MANNEN EN VROUWEN
Mannen lopen meer kans om kanker te krijgen dan vrouwen: deze is één op drie. Voor vrouwen is deze kans iets kleiner, namelijk één op vier. Prostaatkanker is wereldwijd de meest voorkomende vorm van kanker bij mannen, bij vrouwen is dit borstkanker. Ruim 2,4 miljoen vrouwen wereldwijd lijden aan deze vorm.
Uit cijfers van het Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland (IKNL) blijkt dat darmkanker de vorm is die in ons land onder zowel mannen als vrouwen na prostaat- en borstkanker veel voorkomt: 17,9 procent onder mannen en 14,5 procent bij vrouwen.
De wetenschappers benadrukken dat door de stijging van het aantal kankergevallen het belang van goed onderzoek steeds groter wordt. Ook het vroeg ontdekken van de ziekte heeft veel effect. „Er is een grote behoefte aan meer pogingen rondom de preventie van kanker. Zoals het terugdringen van tabaksgebruik en de promotie van sporten en een gezond dieet”, zo stellen de onderzoekers.
Ondanks het sombere nieuws van de stijging van het aantal gevallen van de ziekte, zijn nieuwe behandelmethodes reden voor hoop, volgens de wetenschappers. Deze en andere recente ontwikkelingen zorgen namelijk voor betere overlevingskansen van de ziekte.
Source 2: jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/fullarticle/2588797
3 dec. 2016
Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015
A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
Question What is the burden of cancer between 1990 and 2015 at the global, regional, and national level measured in incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by sex and age?
Findings Using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) methodology, we estimated that in 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases, 8.7 million deaths, and 208.3 million DALYs. Between 2005 and 2015, incident cancer cases increased by 33%, of which 12.6% were due to population growth, 16.4% due to an aging population, and 4.1 % due to increasing age-specific incidence rates.
Meaning Cancer control, which requires a detailed understanding of the cancer burden as provided in the GBD, is of utmost importance given the rise in cancer incidence due to epidemiological and demographic transition.
Importance Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.
Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.
Evidence Review Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence MI ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.
Findings In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined.Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent.Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (−6.1% 95% uncertainty interval (UI), −10.6% to −1.3%). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.
Conclusion and Relevance As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
In 2015, cancer caused over 8.7 million deaths globally and was the second leading cause of death behind cardiovascular diseases.1 Even though these impressive numbers are testimony that the “war on cancer” has not been won, recent developments in personalized medicine and novel treatment approaches like immunotherapy have raised hope of significantly improving cancer survival.2- 4 These expectations for patients with cancer in high-income countries contrast with the challenge of making basic diagnostic and treatment options widely available in low-resource settings.5 Both the equity and affordability of cancer care from individual and societal perspectives are increasingly being questioned.6 Survival rates between and within high-income countries differ for reasons such as variation in education, access to specialized care, effective treatment, and insurance status.7- 9 The full potential of cancer prevention for reducing incidence and mortality is far from being realized, and efforts are especially lagging in low-income countries.10 Awareness of this “cancer divide,” with substantially worse outcomes and a high burden in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, has led to a focus on global oncology by the international health community.4,5,10 This is reflected in the third Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) to “by 2030, reduce by one-third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.”11 Estimates of the burden of cancer are produced annually as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study providing a unique means of tracking progress in closing this divide. Here, we present results of the GBD 2015 study for 32 cancer groups covering cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 195 countries or territories from 1990 to 2015 for both sexes across age groups.
Differences Between GBD 2015 and GBD 2013
General methods for GBD 2015 and prior GBD studies have been described previously.1,12 Here, we present methods and results specific to the GBD 2015 cancer estimation. The general framework for the cancer estimation in GBD 2015 has remained similar to GBD 2013, exceptions are detailed below.13 The GBD 2015 study is compliant with the newly developed Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).14 A chart detailing fulfillment of GATHER requirements is provided in eTable 1 in the Supplement; flowcharts and a detailed description for each estimation step are also available in the eAppendix and in the numerous eTables and eFigures in the Supplement. Box 1 includes a list of the figures and tables in this article. Further details about methods and data sources are provided in the eAppendix, eFigures, and eTables in the Supplement. Box 2 contains a list of the supplementary figures and tables. Additional information is available from the authors in Web Tables 1 through 3; the web addresses for these items are listed in Box 3. Hereinafter, citations to Web Tables are for those given in Box 3. Data sources for GBD 2015 are listed in eTable 2 in the Supplement, including which new sources were added compared with GBD 2013.
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